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U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps 1901-1950

By the end of 1898, the U.S. Army artillery was organized into seven regiments, two of which had been created that year. In 1901, the regimental organization of the U.S. Army artillery was abolished and an Artillery Corps with 126 companies of coast artillery and 30 companies of field artillery was established. In 1907, the artillery was split into separate branches: field artillery with a regimental organization, and the Coast Artillery Corps, with a total of 170 companies. In 1924, a regimental organization of the Coast Artillery Corps was instituted. There were 16 Regular Army harbor defense regiments, and several tractor-drawn, railway, and antiaircraft regiments, along with National Guard and Organized Reserve harbor defense and antiaircraft artillery regiments. This organizational status lasted (with the number and type of active regiments changing frequently) until the coast artillery regiments were broken up into separate battalions in 1943. Nearly all seacoast artillery units were deactivated 1944-1946. The Coast Artillery Corps was officially abolished in 1950.

The references listed and the PDF articles that can be downloaded from this page cover Coast Artillery Corps organization, uniforms, insignia, lore, and housing.

For information on specific units, especially during WW I and WW II, consult these references:

  • U.S.Army War College, Historical Section, Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War, Zone of the Interior: Organization and Activities of the War Department, 3 Vols., GPO,Wash. DC, 1949.
  • Clay, Steven E. U.S. Army Order of Battle 1919-1942, Combat Studies Institute Press, US Combined Arms Center, Ft. Leavenworth, KS 2010. (http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/CSI/CSIPubs.asp)
  • Sawicki, James P., Antiaircraft Battalions of the U.S. Army, Volumes 1 & 2, Wyvern Publications, Dumphries, VA, 1991.
  • Stanton, Shelby L., Order of Battle, US Army in World War II, Presidio Press, Novato, CA, 1984.
  • Bean, P.W., Parisi, F.J., Puylara, J. and Littman, A.A., “Antiaircraft – Coast Artillery Corps, Distinctive Insignia Series 20,” American Society of Military Insignia Collectors, 526 Lafayette Avenue, Palmerton, PA 18071-1621.
  • McKenney, Janice E., Air Defense Artillery, Army Lineage Series, Center of Military History, United States Army, Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.
  • War Department, Official Army Register, January 1, 1934, GPO, Wash. DC.
  • War Department, Army List and Directory, GPO, Wash. DC, various dates (1908-1936).

The following revised sections from American Seacoast Defenses: a Reference Guide and the Coast Defense Journal cover the organization of the coast artillery corps (with a list of company and regiments), uniforms, insignia, garrison buildings, and lore.

PDF Coast Artillery Corps Organization Overview (1901-1950) (CDJ and ASD articles)

PDF Coast Artillery Company Histories (1901-1923) (CDJ article)

PDF Coast Artillery Organization in WW I (1917-1919) (CDJ article)

PDF Coast Artillery Regiment List (ASD section)

PDF Coast Artillery Regimental Histories, Regular Army regiments 1-196 (1917 – 1944) (CDJ article)

PDF Coast Artillery Regimental Histories, National Guard regiments 197-265 (1922-1944)

PDF Coast Artillery Regimental Histories, Organized Reserve and Army US regiments 369-979 (1917 – 1944) (CDJ article)

Coast Artillery Separate Battalion Histories (1942-1950) these histories are covered in the Sawicki and Stanton references

PDF Coast Artillery Uniforms (ASD section revised March 2012)

PDF Coast Artillery Insignia (article for web prepared February 2015)

PDF Coast Artillery Regimental Distinctive Insignia Visual Guide

PDF Coast Artillery Post Garrison Buildings (ASD section revised Mach 2012)

PDF Coast Artillery Lore (ASD section revised 2005)

for more information contact Mark Berhow (berhowma@comcast.net)

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